Friday, May 31, 2019

Motivation in Organizational Behavior

Every human action is the result of a need or desire. One experiences a sort of mental discomfort as long as that need remains unsatisfied with him/her. The moment the action is initiated he/she makes an attempt to get over the discomfort. What causes of action is the need or desire? What causes a need is called the stimulus? Therefore, the manager's duty is to create the stimulus that causes a need that initiates action leading to satisfaction. This should be a repetitive process for the action to continue. All this is called 'motivation' in management. Now we shall discuss the need for, significance and nature of motivation.

Managers motivate the employees basically owing to the following reasons:

To direct employees' skills, competencies and knowledge towards job performance: People are the critical resource in the business process in converting the inputs into output and thereby achieving the business goal. People contribute to the achievement of organizational goals with the help of their skills, competencies, and knowledge. Employees use these skills for the job when they are enabled and encouraged to do so. Managers through motivation direct employee skills towards job performance. Otherwise, employees use these skills for unproductive purpose like organizational politics and unproductive trade union activities and for their personal business.

To direct employees' skills, competencies and knowledge towards organizational requirements: Employees contribute their skills and competencies towards the achievement of organizational purposes and strategies in addition to their jobs. Managers have to encourage employees to use their resources to contribute to organizational goals in addition to job needs.

To encourage employees to achieve strategies: Organizational success, as well as sustainability, depends on the achievement of organizational strategies efficiently. Managers have to encourage employees to use their resources to contribute to the achievement of organizational strategies in addition to job needs.

To enhance employee job satisfaction: Employees' job satisfaction depends on a number of factors like remuneration, type of the job, job challenges, interesting work, social factors, job security, organizational facilities, organizational brand in the market as well as corporate governance and citizenship. Managers strive to provide these and encourage employees to feel that this job is providing a range of benefits and get satisfied with the job.

To increase employee commitment to the job and organization: Employee commitment is an essential ingredient for organizational success as committed employees spend all his resources for the organization. This, in turn, makes the company be innovative, caring for the customer and grow continuously.

To enhance human resource competency as a distinctive competitive advantage of the organization: Human resource is recognized as a distinctive competitive advantage in competing with other organizations as al other resources can be copied/imitated or acquired. But the committed human resource with innovative skills can't be copied/imitated. Managers, therefore, convert human resources as a distinctive competitive advantage through motivation.

To increase employee productivity: Higher productivity reduces the cost of operations and thereby increases profits. Committed and competent employees positively contribute to productivity. Managers motivate employees to be committed and acquire competencies.

To enhance organizational citizenship: Motivated employees not only contribute to organizational productivity, but also to the organizational behavior that is compatible with the norms of corporate citizenship behavior. There are five categories of corporate citizenship behavior viz., (1) conscientiousness-performing tasks beyond minimum required levels, (2) altruism-helping others, (3) civic virtue-participating in the political life of the organization, (4) sportsmanship-taking positive attitude and not complaining and (5) courtesy-testing others with respect. Managers motivate the employees towards the enhancement of organizational citizenship.